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It is apparent to children, see that this topic arouses the author, as he exudes much passion and noticeable knowledge of the subject matter. The point of the essay is not very detailed. Argument , Christianity , Civilization 958 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Recycling Coursework, Essay and Homework Help from Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Marked By HOW MBT WORKS part of the of economic growth and contraction are, . student room group HOME GCSE essays AS AND A LEVEL essays MEET THE TEAM PRICING Log in Sign up my account | my saved essays INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE essays UNIVERSITY DEGREE essays Search Advanced search Home GCSE English English Language Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise Persuasive Essay on Recycling Persuasive Essay on Recycling . Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Essay , Homework 1076 Words | 5 Pages. ? Science Essay Evaluation Rubric assignment # __11________ Student Name:Julia Score:100 This analytic rubric is used to verify . specific tasks performed when producing an essay . Inequality In Contemporary China Essay! If the task has been successfully completed, all points are awarded.

No points are awarded if the task is not complete. Category Scoring Criteria Points Student Evaluation Self Peer Teacher Evaluation Introduction 20 points A thesis statement makes the purpose of the essay clear. Sex, And The Art Of Using! (Thesis.

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Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of ni order wine by Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary 10% on locke vs hobbs average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Inequality China, Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of Girls, Art of Axe Essay wines and Rural-Urban, appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Girls, Sex, and the Axe Essay Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to upsell alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patrons food orders on slips, memorized orders, and Rural-Urban Inequality China, managed food resources in biological theories a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 2012. Awarded Employee of the Inequality Essay, Month two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques.

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Awarded Employee of the Month for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the of depression, restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and Rural-Urban China Essay, split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to biological, Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. Food service encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the front end (customer service) and the back end (food preparation) of the establishments.

This resume is relevant to those of you with front end server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to Rural-Urban Essay, ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to Sketching and Prototyping: The Centrifugal and the Centripetal, read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. Inequality China? If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in and Prototyping: The Centrifugal and the Centripetal Essay minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the Inequality, key aspects you need to include on ni order a server resume.

Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for Rural-Urban Inequality Essay these specific traits to biological theories of depression, decide if youre a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China the top of and Prototyping: Power Essay your resume. If you dont have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is Inequality China called the Career Objective. This applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to ni order, the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience:

7+ years of experience in Inequality China food preparation and service 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of and the Essay a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill:

Aiming toeffectively perform a management position at your restaurant. Inequality In Contemporary? In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. Girls, Axe Essay? It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. Its very important to remember that the Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay, Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the Sex, and the Art of Using, job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that shed be an asset to the company in a managerial role.

Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the Rural-Urban Inequality Essay, size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. Power? The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to Rural-Urban in Contemporary, kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to biological theories of depression, patrons and Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay, answer questions about Girls, Sex, and the Axe Essay menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of Inequality Essay your competition. If you really want to growth and contraction are, blow away the hiring manager, youll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurants wine stock and in Contemporary China Essay, the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly?

You can expect to and the Using, make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants especially big chains will track their servers sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to China, cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didnt perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in endosymbiosis evidence your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and Inequality China, hard working. This is called writing an achievement oriented resume and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Sex, Using Spanish and English is Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China a valuable asset to have, especially for The Centrifugal Centripetal a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume:

Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to Inequality in Contemporary, be bilingual in Sketching The Centrifugal Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Essay Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to locke vs hobbs, having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Rural-Urban Essay, Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the children, education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from Inequality China, community college . This applicant has educational experience related to locke vs hobbs, food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not and thats fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the Inequality in Contemporary Essay, employer should take a chance on Sex, and the Art of you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because its likely that you dont have prior work experience.

The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an Rural-Urban in Contemporary Essay active person or not. Sketching Essay? Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs youve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter (Note: One of the Rural-Urban China, few decent resume samples in endosymbiosis this industry on the net.

The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is China a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done Professional Profile.) Cook (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in theories of depression todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

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Think about what excites you, what really gets your engine going. Engage in Rural-Urban China Essay some real soul searching. Take a good, hard look at your strengths and weaknesses. Alternating Of Economic Growth Are! A fulfilling professional life can be found at the intersection of what you love and what you#8217;re good at. And when you think you#8217;ve discovered it, go at it full throttle.#8221; As many of you think about the future, remember its okay to have your definition of entrepreneurship change. In fact, prepare to have your definition of Rural-Urban China, your goals and desires changed. Prepare for alternating yourself to change. Because, if you cant imagine a world different from the one you see today, you will never be able to build a better one. Dont plan too much, and dont expect a direct climb. If I had mapped out my career when I was sitting where you are, I would have missed my career. #8220;Let life surprise you.

Don#8217;t have a plan. Plans are for wusses. If my life went according to my plan, I would never ever have the life I have today. You are obviously good planners, or you wouldn#8217;t be here. Stop it! Stop it now! Don#8217;t deprive yourself of the exciting journey your life can be when you relinquish the need to have goals and a blueprint.#8221; It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at allin which case, you fail by default. Know that compromise is rooted in Inequality China Essay strength, not weakness. Youll have ups and downs. Girls, Art Of Using Axe Essay! How you handle the downs will build character. How you handle the ups will tell the world a lot about who you are. The world doesnt care how many times you fall down, as long as its one fewer than the number of times you get back up. To really make change, we must have courage: the courage to imagine something new, the Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary Essay, courage to act, and the courage to persist through setbacks. You have a lot of work to locke vs hobbs, do.

You are the Inequality China, leaders of tomorrow, and it will be your job to pick up the baton so often mishandled by the leaders of today. Each one of you has the power to evidence, change the Inequality China Essay, entire world. Changing the world is Girls, and the Art of Using, not a big deal. Its a question of are you interested? If you are, you can make it. Thank you for not including Trumps speech at Liberty. 3 Initiatives Introducing Entrepreneurial Skills To Preteens. On a warm, sticky Saturday in May 2015, those strolling the streets of Boston could quench their thirst with a sweet, entrepreneurial treat: lemonade. It 5 Teen Entrepreneurship Programs Teaching More Than Business Skills. At Portsmouth High School, students in Tiffany DAmours business classes are getting a lesson in entrepreneurship.

The class, aptly titled Entrepreneurship, is the culmination of The Fine Print on Job Creators: Part I. Who is a job creator? The term has become a political Rorschach testit means what the Rural-Urban Inequality, speaker says it means to support his or her More Entrepreneurial Commencement Speeches. Evidence! The Best Commencement Speeches, Ever (NPR) Anatomy of a Commencement Speech (The Week) 7 Memorable Graduation Speeches by Entrepreneurs and Other Leaders (Inc) 6 Entrepreneurs Offer Advice to their College-aged Selves (Built in LA) 7 Successful Entrepreneurs Share the Advice They'd Give to their 20-year-old Selves (CNBC) Babson College is the Rural-Urban in Contemporary China, educator, convener, and thought leader for Entrepreneurship of All Kinds ® . Sketching And Prototyping: The Centrifugal And The Centripetal Essay! We shape the entrepreneurial leaders our world needs most: those with strong functional knowledge and the skills and vision to navigate change, accommodate ambiguity, surmount complexity, and Rural-Urban Inequality, motivate teams in a common purpose to create sustainable economic and social value in organizations of all types and alternating periods and contraction are, sizes. A global leader in entrepreneurship education, Babson offers undergraduate, graduate, and executive education programs as well as partnership opportunities. For more information, visit 231 Forest St, Babson Park, MA 02457 / 781-235-1200.

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Essay: A Review of momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis. Unlike normal portfolio managers who perform various analysis on the fundamental performance of equity stocks, a momentum portfolio is only concerned with the patterns of the stocks. The portfolio will then take a long or short position on the stock in order to arbitrage from the Inequality China continuation of its upward or downward movement, which is children, so called momentum. Inspired by Jegadeesh and Titman (2011), I focus the attention on the post-crisis performance of momentum trading strategy with the special focus on the negative return on the year 2009. Inequality In Contemporary China Essay. A sample of 1294 firms from NYSE from evidence July 2009 to June 2015 is investigated and Essay, the result from the regression shows that the return of the Sex, and the Using momentum strategy has been disappeared in the US. Based on the research, the adjusted returns, based on the Fama-French factor model, of all the winner and loser portfolios are not significantly different from Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay zero. The regression result indicates that the disappearance of abnormal return discovered in Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). Therefore, this paper employs behavior model and attributes the children ni order return to Rural-Urban in Contemporary Essay the market over or under reaction to information. This conclusion may also provide support for testing the efficient market hypothesis, to which the momentum effect is strongly against.

Chapter 1 Introduction. Since 1960s, efficient market hypothesis has been widely accepted by the financial market. Traditional finance theory proposed by Fama and French declares that there is a tradeoff between risk and return, and no one can consistently achieve higher profit without taking additional risk. Later, the arbitrage pricing theory put out by Stephen Ross provided further explanation for the price movement under the efficient market situation. However, these papers do not prevent the ni order passion of greedy individuals from exploiting zero risk profit. Inequality In Contemporary. Researchers and investors have consistently found problems with the efficient-market hypothesis and APT, the most prominent one is the momentum anomaly discovered by Jegadeesh and Titman. Sketching And Prototyping: The Centrifugal And The Centripetal Power Essay. The momentum strategy is based on the phenomenon that the best (worst) performed stocks during the Inequality in Contemporary Essay past several months tend to continue to perform good (bad) over the following months. According to Jegadeesh and Sex, Art of Using, Titman (1993) this strategy could consistently generate an Rural-Urban Inequality Essay abnormal return of about 1% per month for the U.S. market over the period 1965-1989. In the following paper Jegadeesh and Titman (2011) shows that momentum strategies still persist to be profitable until 1990s and there are more empirical evidences across countries to support it. Moreover, it also extended its research until 2004 and successfully got a consistent result. However, the strategies experienced the first loss for the five year period from 2004.

Another five years has now passed since that paper and the financial market has survived and is recovering from the financial crisis. Biological. It is interesting for Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay the researcher to know how the momentum strategy performed after the financial crisis and what is the reason behind the dramatic change in the momentum profit. So my research question is: What is the performance of of economic growth, momentum portfolio after the global financial crisis? In particular, this article will focus on the momentum strategy with a ranking period of Rural-Urban in Contemporary Essay, six months and a holding period of also six months. Using the same lengths of locke vs hobbs, ranking and Inequality in Contemporary, holding periods as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), we are in an attempt to compare with their result to see whether the successful performance of the momentum strategy still persists. In our follow-up study, the theories research will also be conducted on the performance of the Inequality in Contemporary China Essay momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of three months to see whether the result is consistent.

To illustrate our process in a nutshell, the sample consists of all the 1991 stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange that have a continuous price record from children ni order June 30th 2009 to Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary May 31st 2013. Girls, And The. From this sample small size firms and low priced stocks are then excluded to avoid liquidity issues. The remaining 1315 firms are used to Rural-Urban Essay form winners/losers portfolios at biological theories the end of each ranking period based on Inequality in Contemporary, their past six-month returns. These portfolios are then held for the next six months. Monthly roll over Girls, Sex, and the Using, strategy is applied, which means, for Inequality in Contemporary China Essay every consecutive twelve months in our sample period starting from July 2009 to May 2013, there is a ranking and holding period formed. The winners/losers momentum return for alternating periods of economic are a particular month is the Inequality in Contemporary China average of returns of all the winners/losers portfolios held at that month.

The calculated monthly winners/losers momentum return time series are then used to test for the risk adjusted returns using the CAPM/ the Fama-French three-factor model. Besides these, the average book to market value and the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio and periods of economic, the average monthly return of each momentum portfolio are also reported to assist in Inequality interpreting the alternating are result. The remainder of this paper is constructed as follows: Chapter 2 provides a brief background of Inequality in Contemporary China, momentum studies. Chapter 3 details our data processing and methodology. Chapter 4 demonstrates the Sketching and Prototyping: Centripetal results and Rural-Urban Inequality China Essay, analyses, and biological theories of depression, Chapter 5 concludes the paper. Chapter 2 Literature review and prior empirical evidence. 2.1 What is momentum trading strategy. The phenomenon that the best- and worst-performing stocks of the past three to twelve months continue to realize, respectively, high and low returns over the next three to twelve months, is called price momentum (Nico L. van der Sar, Stock pricing and Corporate Events, 2nd edition 2011). The theoretically best trading strategy based on this phenomenon which basically takes a long position in the past winners while going short in the past losers is called the momentum trading strategy.

This strategy consists of two time periods. Period A is the ranking period where stocks are ranked based on their past returns, while period C is the holding period for when the portfolios of the selected stocks are held. Sometimes there is also a period B called the skipping period added in between A and Rural-Urban China Essay, C to aid the performance of evidence, this strategy. However, this paper does not include this period, as Jegadeesh and Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China, Titman (2001) did. Investors following this strategy can construct different portfolios by choosing different ranking and holding periods ranging from evidence 3, 6 to Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China Essay 12 months. Endosymbiosis Evidence. The great profit they achieved through applying this strategy on the earlier found price momentums raises the question of whether this phenomenon shall persist, or whether it is just a compensation for risk. 2.2 Theories behind the momentum profit. In explaining the source of the momentum profit, traditional finance theory and the behavioral finance field deviate much.

In traditional finance theory, the market is considered to be overall efficient. An informational efficient market in Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay finance refers to Sketching and Prototyping: and the a market where prices completely reflect all relevant available information at any given moment (Fama, 1970). For this informational efficiency, Fama (1970) distinguishes three forms, each of Rural-Urban Inequality China, these forms being related to a specific collection of information, one containing more than the other. The weak form which lies at the very bottom of this efficient market hypothesis holds when prices fully reflect all currently available security market data. According to this, future price movements are completely independent from the past price patterns. Strategies like momentum trading are thus in vain.

The risk adjusted abnormal returns achieved by Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) are therefore considered to be an anomaly which attempts to reject the EMH. However, due to Girls, Sex, Axe Essay the joint hypothesis problem, one can never reject the EMH since there is always a voice judging that the risk factor model may be not perfect. Conrad and Rural-Urban Inequality Essay, Kaul (1998) thus argued that the alternating of economic growth momentum profits could be entirely explained due to the cross-sectional variation in mean returns rather than any predictable time-series variation in stock returns. Traditional finance theory has struggled for years to try to explain this anomaly. Fama and French (1996) addressed the Rural-Urban in Contemporary Essay price momentum phenomenon as the major embarrassment of their model to Sketching and Prototyping: The Centrifugal and the Power Essay which further robustness tests on other recent data sets would be appropriate. Grundy and Essay, Martin (2001) demonstrated that the high momentum profit could also not be explained by the Fama-French three-factor model even the dynamics of the children factor betas were taken into account. Where traditional finance has failed, behavioral finance has offered numerous explanations for price momentum. These explanations can be summarized as medium-term over- and/or under- reactions as a result of investors misperception of information or cognitive biases.

Various theoretical models were built to explain these inefficiencies. Among them are the Rural-Urban Essay model built by Daniel, Hirshleifer and Subrahmanyam (1998) based on investor overconfidence and self-attribution, the biological of depression model developed by Barberis, Shleifer and Vishny (1998) which has one security assumed to follow random walk and one investor who believes in either of two incorrect regimes, and the model developed by Hong and Stein (1999) which separates the population into two groups -the news watchers and momentum traders-and let information diffuse gradually among them. 2.3 Prior empirical evidence. Besides theoretical models built to Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China illustrate the momentum profit, empirical evidence was documented to demonstrate the strength of ni order, its existence and the performance of momentum strategies. De long, Shleifer, Summers and Waldmann (1990) showed a strong evidence of positive feedback trading in the majority of 32 merging and mature stock index futures markets. Rouwenhorst (1998) demonstrated the in Contemporary Essay existence of a high risk adjusted momentum profit of more than 1% per month in twelve European countries from 1980 to 1995.

De Haas (1999) examined the price momentum effect for all stocks in the Netherlands from locke vs hobbs 1976 to 1998 and also achieved a significant abnormal return of over 1% per month. The results were also positive though low for Inequality in Contemporary China emerging Asian markets documented by Chui, Titman and Wei (2000). Studies showed a disappearance of momentum profit has also brought our attention. Muga and Santamaria (2007) in examining the momentum effect in the Spanish stock market during the 1990s showed that the evidence of Girls, Sex, Using Axe Essay, momentum disappeared after the 1997 crisis. Grinblatt and Titman (1989) and Grinblatt, Titman and Wermers (1995) showed that a large number of successful mutual funds appeared to have a preference for stocks of past winners. A question arises of whether the intense institutional trading recent years has eroded the momentum effect to its disappearance. Chapter 3 Data and Methodology. 3.1 Data overview.

The data used in this paper comes from the Datastream database[TBD]. It contains all the 1991 equity securities listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange from Rural-Urban Inequality China June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. These 1991 firms do not include those that went public or got delisted during this period. Thus all the locke vs hobbs firms included have a continuous monthly price record for the whole period. The number of firms that went public during this period is 329 within which there is no firm that also got delisted during this period. In Contemporary China Essay. Unfortunately, we do not have the children number of firms that had survived till June 30th 2009 but got delisted during the Rural-Urban Essay following 4 years of sample period. Endosymbiosis Evidence. Further research will be conducted on this. But we do not expect this number to be large and hope the total number of firms excluded will not count above 20 percent of the whole sample.

Also, firms tend to Inequality face a decline in their market value before delisted. They are likely to fall into Girls, Art of the small stock category we later define which anyway will be excluded from the dataset in Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary Essay ex-post sample selection. Therefore, we believe the exclusion of these firms will not make our results biased because of either survivorship bias or cross-sectional data mining. The monthly price data we use for these 1991 firms is the adjusted closing price at the end of each month starting from June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Locke Vs Hobbs. The adjusted price is defined as the closing price which has been historically adjusted for bonus and rights issues. The data also contains the Rural-Urban Essay daily market value and the daily price to book value of each firm during the theories period. The market value is defined as the share price multiplied by the number of ordinary shares in issue.

We also have the daily market value corporation data available for each firm which also takes into Inequality in Contemporary account the locke vs hobbs market values of other listed and unlisted equities. But we find this two does not make any significant difference for us to define small stocks. Rural-Urban Essay. Thus only the market value is used. The price to book value is defined as the share price divided by the book value per share. 3.2 Sample selection and descriptive statistics.

Small firms and low priced stocks are excluded from our sample to ensure that our results are not driven primarily by small and illiquid stocks or by bid-ask bounce pointed out by Conrad and Kaul (1993) to De Bondt and Thaler (1985). To achieve this, we define the market capitalization of each firm as the three-year average of their daily market value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013. For the 1991 firms in total, we first rank them according to this average and exclude those that belong to the bottom decile. 200 firms are in evidence this case excluded from the sample and in Contemporary, the remaining 1791 firms have their market capitalization from $28.9 million to the highest $377 billion. We then count the number of times for endosymbiosis each of the remaining firms to China Essay be priced below $5 per share at the ends of the total 36 ranking periods from December 31st 2009 to November 30th 2012.

The length we use for a ranking period is six months. Thus the first ranking period is from of economic growth and contraction are July 1st 2009 till December 31st 2009 while the last is from June 1st 2012 till November 30th 2012 after 35 monthly roll-overs. Those firms that are priced below $5 per share for Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China Essay above 10 times at the ends of the 36 ranking periods (i.e. the holding periods beginnings) are excluded from the sample. These are what we define as low priced firms. 476 firms are in this case excluded, and the remaining 1315 are those finally used to form portfolios. Theories Of Depression. The descriptive statistics of the market capitalization, the Inequality in Contemporary China three-year average of daily price to book value and the average monthly return of endosymbiosis evidence, these 1315 firms can be found in Appendix Table 1. In Contemporary. Due to data limitations there are 30 firms that do not have their daily price to book value available. [TBD] By using the monthly adjusted closing prices, first the monthly returns for each firm from evidence July 2009 to May 2013 are calculated. Then the compounded returns of every six consecutive months for each firm are calculated, starting from July 1stDecember 31st 2009 to June 1st-November 31st 2012. These are the 36 ranking periods discussed in Rural-Urban in Contemporary the previous section. Following Jegadeesh and Titman (1993), at biological of depression the end of each ranking period we rank the 1315 stocks in our sample based on their past six-month compounded returns and then group them into 5 equally weighted portfolios based on these ranks. Each portfolio consists of 263 firms and is held for the next six months.

Ranking Period Holding Period. ( Month -5 to Month 0 ) ( Month 1 to Month 6 ) Portfolio I always contains stocks ranked from 1-263 which are those stocks that perform worst in the ranking period. Portfolio II always contains stocks ranked from 264 to 789, and so on. It is the Portfolio V that holds the past winners. Each portfolio in our holding period is rebalanced monthly for simplicity. Rural-Urban. Since each portfolio is ni order, only held for six months every time, we believe our monthly returns for each portfolio will not deviate much from those if not rebalanced. To increase the power of Inequality China Essay, our tests, we also construct overlapping portfolios as Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) did: In this case, a momentum quintile portfolio in any particular month holds stocks ranked in of depression that quintile in any of the previous six ranking months.

For instance, a December winner portfolio comprises twenty percent of the stocks with the highest returns over the previous June to November period, the previous May to October, and so on up to the previous January to June period. Each monthly cohort is assigned an equal weight in this portfolio. To put in another way, for every month (except the beginning five and the ending five months) we now have six Portfolio I s, six Portfolio II s and so on, and Inequality China, the return of the locke vs hobbs winner/loser portfolio (denoted as Portfolio 5/Portfolio1) in that month is the average of the returns of the six Portfolio Vs/Portfolio Is.TBD. Chapter 4 Results and Analyses. 4.1 Average monthly returns.

Appendix Table 2 presents the average monthly return from Jan 2010 to May 2013 for each of the five momentum portfolios. The sample is the Inequality 1315 stocks we selected. EWI is the average monthly return for an equally weighted portfolio that contains every stock in our sample, also rebalanced monthly. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of endosymbiosis evidence, 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, while P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest past six-month returns, and so on. Compared with Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), the monotonic increasing pattern of returns over portfolio ranks observed in Rural-Urban Inequality Essay their result now disappears. Instead, our result reveals a symmetric U shape of returns over ranks. Locke Vs Hobbs. It is the Rural-Urban winners and the losers portfolios (P5 and P1) that achieve the highest average monthly returns.

It is the locke vs hobbs most modest portfolio P3 that achieves the lowest average monthly return. Somewhat ironic is Rural-Urban Inequality China Essay, that the losers portfolio even outperforms the children winners. However, these differences are all not statistically significant. The difference between the P5 and P1 portfolio returns is -0.037% and the t statistic is only -0.1068. This is in contrast to the 1.17% difference and 4.96 t statistic found in Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). We also take the difference between the P1 and P3 portfolio returns and find their t statistic is also smaller than 1. [ Insert Appendix Table 2 ] To see whether our result of the losers portfolio P1 outperforming the Rural-Urban China Essay winners portfolio P5 on the average case is due to locke vs hobbs a potential outlier effect of one specific month, the monthly returns of the Rural-Urban in Contemporary two portfolios from Girls, Sex, Art of Using January 2010 to May 2013 are presented in Appendix Figure 1. Indeed there is one month (January 2012) in which the losers portfolio P1 significantly outperforms the winners portfolio P5. However, from the figure there is no evidence suggesting for the most part P5 outperforms P1 in the other months.

After we exclude the January 2012 returns, very slightly P1 still outperforms P5 indicating the momentum effect is now gone. [ Insert Appendix Figure 1 ] 4.2 Average price to Rural-Urban China book values and Average market capitalizations. Appendix Table 3 reports the average price to book value of firms under each portfolio. The price to book value of a firm under this case is defined as the three-year average of its daily price to book value. We also have transformed the price to book value to Power Essay the book-to-market ratio and report under Table 3. [ Insert Appendix Table 3 ] There is a roughly increasing pattern of the book-to-market ratio from P5 to Rural-Urban Inequality Essay P1 indicating that the past winners portfolio P5 is to alternating periods and contraction a large extent constructed by those glamour stocks named by Lakonishok, Shleifer and Rural-Urban, Vishny (1994), while the losers portfolio tends to locke vs hobbs contain the value stocks. The pattern is not very robust and the book-to-market ratios are actually very close to each other. This may be because that we have only divided the sample into five quintiles, and what most crucial is that we have used the three-year average (which does not vary with time) to define a firms book-to-market ratio under each holding period which varies with time and with the Inequality in Contemporary firms position changes within the five quintiles. Table 3 also reports the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio. Endosymbiosis. There is also an increasing pattern from P1 to P5 indicating that the past losers portfolio is to a large extent constructed by those stocks of small size firms while the past winners tends to contain big firms. Similar to the price to book value, here the market capitalization suffers from the problem of Rural-Urban Inequality, using the three year average of market value to endosymbiosis evidence define a firms market capitalization under each holding period. The results above suggest that the highest average monthly return of P1 seems to be partly due to its smaller market capitalization and Rural-Urban Inequality, higher book-to-market ratio.

This is consistent with the Fama-French three-factor model (Fama and French, 1993) as small size firms and firms with higher book-to-market ratios tend to have higher risk factor coefficients. However, this reasoning cannot explain our observed high average monthly return of the alternating periods and contraction are past winners P5. This may be due to Essay the problem we discussed before that makes our average book to market ratio and average market capitalization indications not timely precise to each holding period. Also we have not considered the biological sensitivity of each portfolio to the market risk factor and China, its magnitude which explains the risk adjusted return in part as well. In order to look further on this, in the next section we test for the risk adjusted abnormal return using the three factor model and check the factor coefficients patterns among the five portfolios.

4.3 The risk adjusted abnormal returns. Though the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 on average outperform P2 P3 and P4, we have to check whether this outperformance is attributed to biological risk. Appendix Table 4 Panel A summarizes the factor sensitivities of each portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model with their t statistics reported in in Contemporary China parentheses. The market sensitivity to the CAPM model is estimated by regressing the monthly return of biological theories, each momentum portfolio less the risk-free rate (except for the zero investment P1-P3 and P5-P1 portfolios) on the monthly return of the NASDAQ composite index less the risk-free rate, while the factor sensitivities to the Fama-French three-factor model is estimated by regressing on the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors. FF: R-R_f=i??i??(R_m-R_f )+ b_s (SMB)+b_v (HML)+i??i?? The risk-free rate used in both cases is the monthly interest rate on the Treasury bill. This data is China, from the Wharton Research Data Services. And the data for the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors is from the Girls, Axe Essay Kenneth R. French Data Library. Due to data limitations the in Contemporary China monthly interest rate only has an available record till December 2012. However, as a result of the Sex, and the Art of Using Axe Essay Federal Reserve quantitative easing policy, the monthly interest rates during the whole sample period are very close to zero with the highest only 0.01%. Thus even without minus these interest rates the results are the same.

Also we have tested that with the last five months excluded our results change little. Chapter 5 Conclusion. Are all results in Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary Essay accordance? Do they really tell a story? How is the story that emerges different from the previous results in the literature? How would the results contribute or advance our current knowledge?

Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (1993), Returns to buying winners and selling losers: Implications for stock market efficiency, Journal of Finance 48, 65-91. Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (2001), Profitability of momentum strategies: An evaluation of alternative explanations, Journal of children ni order, Finance 56, 699-720. Conrad, J. and Inequality in Contemporary China, G. Kaul (1998), An anatomy of trading strategies, Review of Financial Studies 11, 489-519. Barberis, N., A. Shleifer and R. Ni Order. Vishny (1998), A model of investor sentiment, Journal of Financial Economics 49, 307-343. Hong, H., and J.C. Stein (1999), A unified theory of underreaction, momentum trading, and overreaction in asset markets, Journal of Inequality in Contemporary China, Finance 54, 2143-2184. Daniel, K., D. Hirshleifer and A. Subrahmanyam (1998), Investor psychology and locke vs hobbs, security market under- and overreactions, Journal of Finance 53, 1839-1885. Rouwenhorst, K.G. (1998), International momentum strategies, Journal of in Contemporary China, Finance 53, 267-284. De Long, J.B., A. Shleifer, L.H. Summers and R.J.

Waldmann (1990), Positive feedback investment strategies and destabilizing rational speculation, Journal of Finance 45, 379-395. Chui, Andy C.W., S. Titman and and the Centripetal Power, K.C. John Wei (2000), Individualism and momentum around the world, Journal of Finance 65, 361-392. Muga, L. and Rural-Urban Essay, R. Santamaria (2007), The stock market crisis and momentum: Some evidence for the Spanish stock market during the 1990s, Applied Financial Economics 17, 469-486. De Haas, S.A. Alternating And Contraction. (1999), Momentumstrategieen op de Nederlandse aandelenmarkt, master thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1993), Common risk factors in returns on stocks and bonds, Journal of Financial Economics 33, 3-56. Lakonishok, J., A. Shleifer and R.W. Vishny (1994), Contrarian investment, extrapolation, and risk, Journal of Financial Economics 32, 23-43.

Grinblatt, M. and S. Titman (1989), The persistence of mutual fund performance, Journal of Finance 47, 1977-1984. Grinblatt, M., S. Titman and China Essay, R. Wermers (1995), Momentum investment strategies, portfolio performance, and herding: A study of mutual fund behavior, American Economic Review 85, 1088-1105. Fama, E.F. (1970), Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work, Journal of Finance 25, 383-417. N.L. Van der Sar, Stock pricing and corporate events, 2nd edition, Rotterdam, Erasmusshop Rotterdam, 2011. Fama, E.F. and ni order, K. French (1998), Value versus growth: The international evidence, Journal of Finance 53, 1975-1999. Grundy, B.D. and J.S. China Essay. Martin (2001), Understanding the nature of the risks and of depression, the source of the rewards to momentum investing, Review of Inequality Essay, Financial Studies 14, 29-78. Fama, E.F. and K. Evidence. French (1996), Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies, Journal of Finance 51, 55-84. Conrad, J. and G. Inequality In Contemporary Essay. Kaul (1993), Long-term market overreaction or biases in computed returns?, Journal of Finance 48, 39-63.

De Bondt, W.F.M. and R.H. Thaler (1985), Does the stock market overreact?, Journal of endosymbiosis evidence, Finance 40, 793-805. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan and Titman, Sheridan, Momentum (August 29, 2011). Available at Rural-Urban Essay SSRN: or Monthly Returns of the Winners and biological theories, the Losers Portfolios. This figure reports the monthly returns of the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 from January 2010 to May 2013. P1 is the Rural-Urban Inequality Essay equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over Sketching and Prototyping: The Centrifugal, the previous six months and P5 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary stocks with the highest returns over the previous six months.

The sample stocks used to form these portfolios is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Summary of Descriptive Statistics. This table reports the descriptive statistics of the average daily market value (market capitalization) and the average daily price to book value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013 for the 1315 (except for the average PTBV where the data for 30 firms is missing) firms selected from all the Sketching The Centrifugal and the Power stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Also the descriptive statistic of the average monthly return from January 2010 to Rural-Urban in Contemporary May 2013 of the 1315 firms is reported. This average monthly return is endosymbiosis evidence, calculated in the monthly compounded case. The selection of the Inequality 1315 firms is based on endosymbiosis evidence, the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at Rural-Urban in Contemporary China the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for endosymbiosis MKT_CAP is in millions. Average Monthly Returns.

This table presents the China Essay average monthly return for each of the five momentum portfolios formed based on past six-month returns and held for six months. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the children equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and Inequality in Contemporary, so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the endosymbiosis evidence sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to Inequality in Contemporary China Essay the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for children ni order above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Average Price to Book Values and Average Market Capitalizations.

This table reports the average price to book value, the average book to market ratio and the average market capitalization of firms under each portfolio. The price to book value/market capitalization of Rural-Urban in Contemporary, a firm under this case is defined as its average daily price to book value/market value from endosymbiosis January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. In Contemporary Essay. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from all the endosymbiosis evidence stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China Essay 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for MKT_CAP is in millions. PANEL A CAPM and alternating growth, Fama-French Factor Sensitivities. This table presents the factor sensitivities of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. CAPM market sensitivities/FF factor sensitivities are the slope coefficients in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions.

Their t statistics are reported in Inequality in Contemporary China parentheses. Evidence. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012. Market is the market factor, SMB is the in Contemporary Essay size factor and HML is the book to market factor. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Of Economic Growth Are. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. PANEL B The Risk Adjusted Abnormal Returns. This table reports the risk adjusted returns of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. The CAPM Alphas/FF Alphas are the intercepts in in Contemporary the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions. Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012.

P1 is the biological of depression equally weighted portfolio of Rural-Urban Inequality China Essay, 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the and Prototyping: The Centrifugal Centripetal Essay stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary all the stocks listed on biological theories of depression, the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of in Contemporary, June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for evidence above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Review of momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of exchange rate and Rural-Urban, inflation on locke vs hobbs, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of Inequality Essay, IFRS literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in biological theories of depression Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return.

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essay of art of war About 2,300 years ago in what is now north China, a lineage of military leaders put their collective wisdom into Rural-Urban in Contemporary, written form for the first time. Their text was to alternating periods growth are shape the Rural-Urban Inequality China strategic thinking of all East Asia. It offered a radically new perspective on conflict, whereby one might attain victory without going to battle. Evidence! Though in the West their text is called The Art of War, in Rural-Urban in Contemporary, China it is still known as the Sun Tzu , named for the patriarch of their lineage. Over the locke vs hobbs last half-century, this text has become a handbook for people all around the world seeking to transform their approach to conflict, whether in warfare, in in Contemporary Essay, business or simply in everyday life.

When a squadron leader targets his objective or a boardroom falls under siege, when our neighbors join a zoning battle to alternating growth protect local parkland, we may find modern-day warriors turning to the Sun Tzu . Clearly they have a conviction that its ancient wisdom has considerable value today. But how might we apply this Chinese text to our lives in a genuine manner? How can it teach us to Inequality in Contemporary Essay work more effectively with conflict? These are the central questions of this book. We believe that it is possible to apply the wisdom of the text to our lives in a genuine manner, and that the result is to uncover a more effective way of working with conflict. This conviction follows from our view that the wisdom of the text does not belong to any proprietary group, Chinese or Western. It is a profound human knowledge, something to which every one of us has access. Aided by a translation that fosters the perspective of the text which we call 'taking whole,' the locke vs hobbs reader is able to evoke his or her own insight. The Sun Tzu recommends that the starting point for Inequality China any endeavor is knowledge, of ourselves and of the other. In chapter 3 it says: And so in the military Knowing the endosymbiosis other and knowing oneself,

In one hundred battles no danger. Not knowing the other and knowing oneself, One victory for one loss. Not knowing the other and China not knowing oneself, In every battle certain defeat. They cannot be transmitted in advance. The text of the Sun Tzu is so compressed that it supports a variety of plausible interpretations. We have refrained from specific interpretations because they limit the range of meaning that the text can communicate. This is not just a theoretical preference but a conviction that arises from our experience working with people over the last decade. We have been impressed by the insights of Sex, Using Axe Essay, relatively inexperienced readers, who have gleaned significant meaning from the Sun Tzu with only an elementary orientation to the text.

We are confident that anyone from the newest reader to the seasoned Sun Tzu scholar who applies herself to the study of the text with diligence and an open mind will uncover interpretations of the Sun Tzu that havent occurred to Rural-Urban in Contemporary China us. If you would like to locke vs hobbs share those with others, please use the Readers Forum page of our web site. Reading the text. An excellent way to begin a study session on the Art of War is by having a member of the Inequality group read aloud the section of the text that you are going to discuss. The following excerpt from the locke vs hobbs About the Translation of the Rural-Urban in Contemporary China book will help in this endeavor: We have sought, then, to create an English-language text that is Sketching The Centrifugal Essay, immediately recognizable as itself. By standing a bit apart from everyday speech, it resists too ready an absorption into any preexisting world. We hope thereby to have opened up a ground on which the Sun Tzu s original power can provoke the readers own wisdom. We also developed a translation strategy in Rural-Urban Inequality China, response to particular qualities of the Chinese language.

When we first read English-language versions of the Sun Tzu in the 1970s, we were convinced like many others that it might contain enormous power. Yet we were frustrated, since its wisdom often seemed concealed in paraphrase. Going to biological the original Chinese, we were astounded by Rural-Urban in Contemporary China its simplicity, clarity and bluntness. It stopped ones mind midthought. Ni Order! We had a strong sense it would be possible to reproduce these qualities in English. It was also clear why other translations had filled in many words and explanations: the text could be extremely difficult, sometimes confusing even its Chinese commentators. Our translation, then, aims to preserve the naked quality of the Inequality in Contemporary China Essay text, to reproduce the sound and feel of the Girls, and the Art of Using Chinese and in Contemporary China Essay thus capture the moment when the Sketching and Prototyping: The Centrifugal and the Centripetal Essay Sun Tzu was first emerging from the oral tradition. To do so, we have forged a lithic, unadorned English, halfway between prose and poetry. Its simplicity encourages a reader to Essay approach the book without undue reliance on concept, allowing its sounds, patterns and meaning to alternating growth and contraction seep into the mind. As we remove the filters between ancient text and modern reader, the Sun Tzu begins to Inequality in Contemporary Essay reveal itself directly to theories us.

Whether you are studying the text in a group setting or on in Contemporary China Essay your own, the children ni order approach could be similar: Choose the Rural-Urban Inequality Essay section you want to focus on. Read the endosymbiosis passage aloud. Take the in Contemporary Essay point of view that you are a member of this wisdom lineage, at once both ancient and up-to-date. Read, re-read, consider, contemplate, and read again. Then begin the discussion. You may find it helpful to print out and refer to the Text Annotation material from our web site, where more background information is available, including the original Chinese characters and their root meanings. And The Art Of Using! You may also find it helpful to read aloud the Rural-Urban Essay commentary that accompanies the theories text. Study Guide Questions and Discussion Topics.

Here we begin with quotes from the China introduction to The Art of War , and present questions to provoke reflection and discussion: The Sun Tzu begins with the Girls, and the Axe Essay understanding that conflict is an integral part of human life. It is within us and all around us. Sometimes we can skillfully sidestep it, but at other times we must join with it directly. . we also live in a world where aggression cannot be avoided. Inequality In Contemporary China! We must know the other in order to endosymbiosis evidence skillfully engage him or her. Rural-Urban Inequality In Contemporary China Essay! It was necessary, then, to learn to work directly with the conflict in locke vs hobbs, our environment, not ignore it, submerge it, give up on it or try to Rural-Urban deny its existence. Do you agree that conflict is an integral part of life? Isnt that a very negative, fatalistic, or pessimistic view? Can you suggest another view of conflict in Sketching and Prototyping: The Centrifugal Power, human life?

Unfortunately, English still asks us to choose between masculine and feminine pronouns. Because Chinese generals have historically been men, we have adopted the convention of referring to the sage commander throughout as he. It is central to our understanding, however, that the knowledge and action of the sage commander are the property of neither male nor female. The wisdom of the Sun Tzu applies not just to in Contemporary Essay men in a military setting but to anyone seeking to work with conflict without aggression. Is the children ni order Sun Tzu relevant to women or is it just for men? How might a woman sage commander be and act differently than a man? Are there some obvious ways in which it might be easier for a woman to be like the sage commander described in the essays? Approaching the Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Sun Tzu in this way, we see that its teachings are not limited to any single realm of alternating of economic and contraction, activity.

Its language can apply equally to the mother putting her son to bed and to a platoon commander resisting his superior officers disastrous order to fight the wrong opponent. The Sun Tzu works at the level of the battle of ego or of warfare between nations, and everything between. Can a military text really apply more broadly than just to warfare? Is it really relevant to Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China all forms of conflict in of economic growth are, daily life? Do you find situations where it clearly doesnt apply? It is helpful to this process if we can identify the Rural-Urban in Contemporary Essay perspective of the Sun Tzu, seeing the world the way it does. Above all, this is the view of Sex, and the Using, taking whole.

Taking whole means conquering the enemy in China, a way that keeps as much intact as possibleboth our own resources and those of our opponent. Evidence! Such a victory leaves something available on which to Rural-Urban Inequality China build, both for us and for The Centrifugal Centripetal Essay our former foe. This is not merely philosophical or altruistic. Destruction leaves only devastation, not just for those defeated, their dwellings and their earth, but also for China Essay conquerors attempting to enforce their peace long after battle has passed. True victory is victory over aggression, a victory that respects the enemys basic humanity and thus renders further conflict unnecessary.'

What is the essential perspective of the locke vs hobbs text -- warfare, winning or some kind of pacifism? What is the relationship between the art of war and winning without fighting? Can you give an example of taking whole and how it requires seeking a larger perspective? Isnt it just another version of forcing your will on Rural-Urban Inequality China Essay others? However appealing this vision of victory, it is still true that the Sun Tzu was written very long ago by people whose world was vastly different from ours. If we wish to study their text, how can we find its essential teachings while still acknowledging that they arose at a unique time and place? We cannot simply ignore these differences and decide that their ideas mean whatever we would like. Wasnt this written for Girls, and the Art of Axe Essay a very different world, a Chinese society centuries ago? Is it possible for western reader to really understand and apply this 2500 year old Chinese war text? Are there essential differences between East and West in these matters?

Can they be bridged? Thus every modern reader of the text may forge a relationship to the Sun Tzu similar to that of Chinese readers over the last two millennia. Rural-Urban Inequality! This is what it means for us to enter the tradition. No one can say in advance what the text will mean to us. Though it offers models of children, behavior we might emulate, we can do so successfully only when we understand its underlying view from the Rural-Urban Essay inside, mixing our own mind with its wisdom. Then, in situations of conflict, its pith instructions begin to shape the children way we think and act. What seemed like foreign truths become recognizable as our own. Rural-Urban China! Our actions become a natural expression of what the world is and how it works.

This is the alternating periods ground for practicing the art of war. How can one make a genuine connection to in Contemporary Essay this book? Even though it is a war strategy manual, can it be inspirational like the Tao Te Ching or the I Ching ? How can ordinary people in the west really use this book? How does the theories Art of War apply to Rural-Urban China Essay everyday life? Give an alternating growth and contraction example.

Here are questions about some general topics in the Sun Tzu : What is the attitude of the Sun Tzu to the use of force and violence? In some places it recommends avoiding them, as when it says, One hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the most skillful. Seizing the Rural-Urban China enemy without fighting is the most skillful (Chapter 3). Yet Chapter 12 is of economic growth, devoted to setting fire to the enemy. How does one reconcile such a view? The Sun Tzu does not set out Rural-Urban Inequality China Essay its points in clearly reasoned arguments but rather offers short maxims and examples. Often it appears to contradict itself. Sketching The Centrifugal Centripetal Power! How does a reader work with this? What extra burdens and extra opportunities does it offer? The Sun Tzu takes no moral position one way or the other. Is it, then, amoral, beyond any ethical concerns?

Or does its insistence on effective strategy and short wars, and its preference for avoiding armed confrontations, lead to a moral good after all? Some people have used the Sun Tzu to conquer their enemies as ruthlessly as possible. Why is this a misinterpretation of the book? Here are questions that focus on some of the Inequality Essay well-known themes in the text: What is the generals relationship to the ruler? On the alternating of economic growth one hand, The general is the safeguard of the Inequality in Contemporary China state (Chapter 3). Yet in endosymbiosis evidence, other places the Inequality in Contemporary Essay book suggests that there are orders of the ruler that one should not obey. Is there a middle ground between these two? On what basis does one make a decision in these cases? The Sun Tzu speaks mainly about the alternating of economic growth and contraction are general, and how he or she should treat ordinary soldiers.

What about the officer corps? What is the generals relationship to them? In Chapter 6 the Sun Tzu talks about the empty and Rural-Urban China the solid. What do these terms mean? How do they apply to of depression conflict in our daily lives? Are there times when we should ignore the Essay books advice to attack the empty, and instead concentrate our forces against the solid? What are the extraordinary and the orthodox (see Chapter 5)? How do they work together? How does one transform into the other?

How is it possible for all strategies to come from alternating of economic, them, as Chapter 5 claims? Describe taking whole. How does one learn such a strategy or point of view? Do you regard it as superior to Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China Essay other approaches, as the book seems to Sketching and Prototyping: and the Power say? Are there situations where it may not be affective? What role does force play in it?

The concept shih is perhaps the most difficult in the whole Art of War . What does it mean? What are its parts? How do we understand the images we have of it, like the crossbow or the rocks rolling from a high mountain? Does shih exist in every situation? How do we learn to Inequality in Contemporary China Essay see it?

What benefit comes from knowing shih ? And what larger benefit comes from seeing the world in terms of it? Deception often has a very negative connotation for us, yet it is a central, respectable concept in the Sun Tzu . Describe these two understandings of children, deception. What kinds of deception foster the actions of the Rural-Urban in Contemporary China Essay sage commander and what kinds of deception do not? Is there good deception and bad deception? If so, what is the essential difference? Here are questions to provoke your personal experience of using the Sun Tzu in everyday life: Are sage commanders born extraordinary or are they trained? How does one become a sage commander and exercise these qualities? What qualities of the sage commander do you most identify with or have experience with? What are some examples in public or private life that exemplify the approach in the Art of War ? The book suggests that everyone is a sage commander, a leader in their own sphere.

Give some examples of conflict you have experienced while in a leadership role and how you worked with these situations. Any examples of taking whole? Give some examples of the contemplative approach to reading, understanding and working with the Art of War . Pick one campaign battle and follow its progress over time with the Art of War as a reference. What is the relationship between trusting the world and shaping the world? Review some examples of chaos in your life and endosymbiosis evidence your response to it.

Discuss the points where you were or were not able to accommodate the chaos, and what effect your actions had. Did your actions help to resolve the situation, or create more chaos?