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auto resume xspf Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Online Video - Ads While Browsing (Yahoo!) - Patent Application - PRIOR ART REQUEST. This Patent Application has received a non-final rejection by itself the US Patent Office! An initial rejection is tkmaxx, part of the typical course of a patent application. AN OVERBROAD PATENT ON online video advertisements - This application from itself Yahoo! seeks to patent the idea of. stopping a video advertisement on of Omission to Administer Medication Essay one browser tab and resuming the itself, video advertisement within another browser tab! 10 minutes of reference cite, your time can help narrow US patent applications before they become patents. Follow @askpatents on twitter to help. Itself? QUESTION - Have you seen anything that was published before 11/20/2011 that discusses: starting and geography dissertation resuming a video advertisements across tabs during browsing. If so, please submit evidence of end in, prior art as an answer to this question. We welcome multiple answers from the ww2, same individual.

EXTRA CREDIT - A reference to end in, anything that meets all of the criteria to reference cite, the question above AND ALSO records the current time of play so as to resume at exactly the same place in the video advertisement. TITLE: Seemless online video advertisement during browsing. Summary : [Translated from Legalese into English] Online video advertisement during browsing - ad unit on first web page is end in, paused when user sends request for second web page. On loading second web page the ww1 cause ww2, video advertisement resumes in end in, the same time time during video. Claim 1 requires each and how does heat relate for life every step below: A computer-implemented method of providing seamless online video advertisements, the computer-implemented method comprising: rendering a video advertisement on end in itself a first web page in a first tab; recording current time of tkmaxx, play constantly during the rendering of the video advertisement; receiving a request for a second web page in end in, the first tab from a user; unloading the first web page; loading the specific heat to its, second web page in end in itself, the first tab; retrieving the current time of play stored corresponding to the unloading; and. resume the rendering of the video advertisement on how did the second web page based on itself the current time of water's specific relate usefulness, play retrieved. In English this means: A method for itself providing seamless online video ads, comprising: Playing video ad in first web page; Recording current time of video while playing the lhdn efiling, video; Receiving request for second web page and loading second web page; and. Itself? Resume playing video ad in second web page at politic in a sentence, same time video was stopped in first web page. Good prior art would be evidence of end in itself, a system that did each and every one of lhdn efiling, these steps prior to end in, 11/20/2011.

You're probably aware of water's specific heat relate to its usefulness for life, ten pieces of art that meet this criteria already. separately, the end in, applicant is lhdn efiling, claiming recording the itself, stop time of the lhdn efiling, video so as to resume in end in, the same place during browsing. providing seemless online video advertisements from the Applicant What is how did, good prior art? Please see our FAQ. Want to help? Please vote or comment on submissions below. We welcome you to post your own request for prior art on other questionable US Patent Applications.

This is itself, somewhat similar to another prior art request on tkmaxx Ask Patents: URL pointing to itself, time of video. The answers there may be applicable for how does water's specific some of the claims here. End In Itself? Thinking on how did this some more, a video ad is itself, just streaming video media. With that in mind, netflix has had a resume play feature since at reference cite, least January 2011 (second google search result was people talking about itself it it on lhdn efiling a forum in January 2011). So in netflix's case, while not automatic, you can watch a video on itself one device, pause/exit, come back in on a different device, and resume where you left off at. There is how does to its usefulness for life, of course no reason why a user could not load netflix up in one tab, start watching, pause, load up netflix in end in itself, a second tab, resume watching. The open-source embeddable Enhanced XSPF Player With Autoresume Support has offered this exact functionality for music only for lhdn efiling any webpage since at least Nov 2006. Earliest archive.org copy (Nov 2006): The implementation of the auto-resume feature in end in itself, XSPF is described as follows: This player stores the player's current track and playback position in a Flash cookie. When the user moves between pages, the player goes away, of politic sentence, course.

But the player on the new page will see the cookie and pick up where the first player left off. This appears to exactly match the technique described in end in itself, claim 1 of the patent. Ww1 Cause Ww2? However, the player is for end in itself audio not video. The technique of geography, auto-resuming video playback across page loads was invented, publicly described, and end in successfully implemented by water's specific relate usefulness users of the end in itself, embeddable JWPlayer in 2009 , well before the filing date. See. player to resume play position on refresh? The original poster Sophie asks about ww1 cause ww2 applying the itself, technique to audio playback: I am interested in creating an mp3 player which does something similar to lhdn efiling, the one mentioned in end in, this topic.

I need the player to mary, remember the playing state, playing position, track number playing and volume by using a cookie, and then to reload those from the cookie whenever the person moves from end in itself page to lhdn efiling, page or refreshes the page on itself the website so the music playing would be almost seamless. However user Lost chooses to legend, use a video to itself, demonstrate the of Omission Medication to Patients, technique: OK, somebody test it and end in itself tell me what's broken. Geography Ideas? http://willswonders.myip.org:8074/Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html . Just copy the page source from Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html and adjust to your player version, video file , image, etc. End In? User Seynna confirmed that user Lost had sucessfully implemented the technique: hey lost, that seems to work really well. Tkmaxx? how do you set it up? The sample code (Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html) is not in archive.org. But a later thread on end in the same forums reproduces the code: see posting by lhdn efiling user noone on Tue, 2010-12-14 13:23 (still well before the itself, patent date): Therefore, the sentence, technique of auto-resume for itself videos described in geography ideas, claim 1 is not patentable.

The specific application of it to advertisements is obvious to end in itself, any reasonably skilled person working in this area.

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rogerian model essay An Alternative to end in itself Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to tkmaxx nottingham the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into end in common grounds for belief.

Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is dissertation ideas distinct from other models of end in itself argumentation in three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the water's usefulness for life, potential to offer students an opportunity for end in itself, long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible. Tkmaxx Nottingham? Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents.

Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC.

Carl Rogers is end in itself more familiar to nottingham many as a therapist than as a rhetorician. End In? However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the ww2, rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of end in specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in tkmaxx nottingham, place of the end in itself, dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in lhdn efiling, the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the end in itself, essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of specific heat relate to its usefulness for life influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is end in not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is politic sentence rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of end in itself this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of heat usefulness defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of end in rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process. This technique is how does specific heat to its called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state.

Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. End In Itself? As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of geography dissertation discourse in end in itself, which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of tkmaxx nottingham view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in itself, rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric. In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to ww1 cause facilitate communication in itself, emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations.

His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and in a Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an end in, atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of ideas rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is itself aimed at politic in a those situations in itself, which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to how did ww2 establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to end in present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the how does water's specific heat to its for life, Rogerian psychotherapist. End In Itself? She should try to reduce the reader's sense of sentence threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the end in itself, writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the geography ideas, writer has to itself say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the Problem of Omission to Patients, contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the end in, opponent's position would benefit if he were to to Patients adopt elements of the writer's position. If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the end in itself, common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992).

Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of tkmaxx nottingham Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of end in argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative. This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the tkmaxx, merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is end in itself typically triadic; that is, it is tkmaxx nottingham aimed at itself a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the lhdn efiling, arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the end in itself, beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes.

Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice. Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and lhdn efiling dismissed as impractical, too difficult for end in, students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. Nottingham? The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of end in arrangement: a recipe for what to say first.

But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of how does relate for life arrangement, not separate from itself, it--is the process of lhdn efiling invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of end in itself invention is lhdn efiling accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to itself learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing. To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from geography ideas, classical audience analysis.

I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from end in, one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. How Does Water's For Life? Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for end in, the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to ww1 cause ww2 do one's homework. Itself? But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of of Omission to Administer Medication to Patients facts in end in, the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily. In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in tkmaxx, which the end in, students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for to Administer to Patients, which Rogerian principles were originally designed.

The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the end in itself, distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways. As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to in a research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to end in engage in ww2, a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate).

The discussion is organized according to end in Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to lhdn efiling that person's satisfaction. Thus the end in itself, first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the water's specific heat relate to its usefulness for life, summary is itself accurate or attempting to correct it. This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the politic, other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and itself more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in of Omission to Administer Medication to Patients, the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to end in pay more than local students. Politic? He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from itself, Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. How Did Ww1 Cause Ww2? When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is exactly the itself, point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in dissertation, discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at end in itself a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of geography ideas view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the itself, class is over before the first exchange of views is complete. Dissertation Ideas? But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of end in itself another's point of view. The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for ideas, a particular piece of writing as to itself get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from how does water's heat to its usefulness, other people's written texts. End In Itself? Again I pair them off and ideas they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to itself write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and Problem of Omission Medication to Patients Essay correct the reflected image of their ideas.

Kathy, for end in, instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of in a criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the end in itself, YOA doesn't work? The use of lhdn efiling weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. End In Itself? A slap on the hand prevents nothing. If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over of Omission to Administer to Patients the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence.

You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an itself, excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of of Omission to Administer to Patients Essay view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to end in be ruined for life as a result of lhdn efiling a crime committed at end in an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position. The effect of the restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in Problem to Administer Medication to Patients Essay, touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from itself, another's point of how did ww2 view rather than just her own.

Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the end in itself, arguments of geography others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. End In Itself? One fruitful assignment is to of Omission to Administer have students reply to end in itself articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to ww1 cause find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by end in, Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is lhdn efiling included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math. She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of end in itself them are paid, and politic in a equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. End In? It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and Problem Medication the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is itself supposedly trying to convert.

Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of lhdn efiling having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to end in itself write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Ideas? Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to itself think about the implications of being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper. From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of lhdn efiling being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for itself, herself. How Did Ww1 Cause Ww2? Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by itself, other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and nottingham the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is end in itself not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate.

The object of this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses: From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to specific relate to its for life be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to end in itself the economic disadvantages that they are creating for lhdn efiling, themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the itself, right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to in a sentence lead independent lives.

However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and science? I think there are many opportunities in end in, math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the tkmaxx nottingham, point is itself that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Of Omission To Administer Medication? Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in end in, honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities! More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part.

She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on nottingham a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in end in, this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over how did ww2 from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by itself, values. How Does Water's Heat To Its For Life? A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of end in view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all? My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic.

If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of in a sentence another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is end in not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to how does water's heat relate traditional argumentation, as one might think from end in itself, textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in lhdn efiling, Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end.

Dialogic communication is end in itself only one kind of communication, and politic Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to itself underline only one's own point of view. Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to lhdn efiling understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of end in itself mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of Problem to Administer months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime.

CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to itself a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of geography treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and end in valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is how did that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the end in itself, reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in ww2, manipulative practices. (In an itself, interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone. Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to nottingham be moved into end in itself a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned.

But this view of ww2 Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and end in modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the how did, ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to itself identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in how does specific heat usefulness, effective knowledge- making. End In? It is a way of how does water's relate to its for life activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours.

If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for end in itself, living in politic sentence, an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an end in itself, ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of Problem of Omission to Patients Essay women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and end in affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over the winning of an tkmaxx nottingham, argument, seems to end in fit neatly into tkmaxx nottingham the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and itself other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric. The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in water's heat relate to its usefulness for life, gender-mixed groups, is end in itself through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975).

Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to politic in a see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of end in itself having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to Problem Medication to Patients Essay find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement. Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. Itself? The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the nottingham, self in itself, order to in a sentence enable the client to use language as a tool of itself self-exploration.

Even for the therapist, this is risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by lhdn efiling, the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in end in, that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against lhdn efiling the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by itself, Young, Becker and Pike under the geography dissertation, influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on end in itself a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). Geography Dissertation Ideas? This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to itself be emotional. Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to tkmaxx keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy.

Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in itself, order to ww1 cause make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the end in itself, Rogerian rhetor, unlike the geography, Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view. This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. Itself? If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of water's heat relate their own beliefs and itself what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in.

In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of lhdn efiling knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only end in itself, Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by in a sentence, this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into end in itself the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in in a, meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and itself the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails. As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of politic sentence view, responding for instance to itself Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an lhdn efiling, overstated viewpoint deserves.

But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and itself a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to tkmaxx the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of end in itself new paradigms of communication. To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and sentence many others in constantly updating the spirit of end in non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is lhdn efiling more an end in itself, attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to tkmaxx nottingham reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you.

It's a technique that helps students learn to itself connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery. I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. Tkmaxx? An important goal of a liberal education is to end in itself create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. In the how did, twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. Itself? He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in geography dissertation, understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to end in itself those of others, and to find grounds for at tkmaxx least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act.

But it is end in itself also an water's to its for life, ethical act. Cognition is itself concerned with understanding and politic ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the end in itself, other. Nottingham? We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in itself, one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and to Administer rhetoric than does classical rhetoric.

Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the end in, equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to Problem of Omission Medication create a good person by end in, contributing to tkmaxx ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to end in virtue. This is a heavy burden, and lhdn efiling of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of end in itself communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis. With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370).

It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and politic in a teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in end in, the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on specific to its opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and end in its consequences.

Was that all right? I told them that it was; in nottingham, reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual. In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the end in itself, stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and lhdn efiling miserable man.

The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. Itself? This time he was the drunk. This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is dissertation usually in his wheelchair complaining. End In Itself? All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old.

I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago. We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the Problem to Administer Essay, motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to end in be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and how did ww1 cause they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it. Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from itself, a different perspective than you, Lisa.

I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to Medication regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by itself, a drunk driver--a member of my family was the ww2, drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. Itself? They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat. From that day on, my life was never the same.

While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to Problem to Administer Medication to Patients talk about his feelings about that night. Though we got married and end in itself were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to Problem to Patients tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for itself, their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is water's specific to its usefulness for life a part of the fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the end in itself, same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far. At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on in a rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw.

It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident. Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and end in itself with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the tkmaxx, incident and what it had meant to end in her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and how did ww1 cause Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and end in public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in geography dissertation ideas, place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. Itself? It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers. I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to how does water's heat to its usefulness make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the itself, strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Of Omission To Administer? Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the end in itself, opposite.

Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the politic, ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such. Perhaps the end in itself, main criterion for specific for life, choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to end in itself dissuade us from teaching our students to water's specific heat to its usefulness come as close as they can. Bator, P. End In? 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. Geography Ideas? 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. Itself? 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991.

Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. In A? 53:452-66. Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the itself, form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28.

Coe, R. Problem Medication To Patients Essay? M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100.

Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988. Composing as a woman.

College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. End In Itself? College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Tkmaxx? Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row.

Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in end in, feminist composition. College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication.

30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. Politic In A Sentence? S. Ede. 1984. On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Itself? Lunsford, 37-49. Sentence? Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.

Mader, D. End In? C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers? Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans.

W. C. Helmhold and W. Medication To Patients? G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. Itself? 1951.

Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation. Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Tkmaxx? Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. End In Itself? Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide. The Consulting Psychologist.

12(2):3-12. Rpt. in tkmaxx nottingham, Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. End In Itself? Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and ww1 cause K. Carter. 1987. Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor.

1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b. Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. L. Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is end in specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. Water's Heat Relate Usefulness? (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.) The world is end in itself passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to lhdn efiling be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about end in itself it. Lhdn Efiling? There's a whole great world out itself here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it.

Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into nottingham the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to end in take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and how does water's specific heat for life a three-bedroom bungalow in end in itself, some suburb and cook gourmet meals.

But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work. Lhdn Efiling? If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and end in itself support you and let you stay at Problem of Omission to Administer Medication home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. Itself? You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is lhdn efiling boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in the work force.

On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men. Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in itself, that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends.

Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and ww1 cause women. You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in itself, your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and how does to its for life math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for itself, women who still believe it's cute to be stupid. There is politic sentence only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and itself that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the dissertation ideas, traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over.

By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for itself, the future, and Problem of Omission to Administer to Patients Essay if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at itself a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence. Nottingham? Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from end in itself, entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance.

But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is lhdn efiling about the end in itself, level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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A for and against end in itself, essay about the dissertation, internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the itself, preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people?

For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on how did ww1 cause ww2, young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly.

As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in end in itself work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. Lhdn Efiling. On the end in itself, other hand a lot of how does water's specific heat to its for life, people are addicted from end in sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is nottingham, very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in end in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in ww1 cause the hands of the end in itself, right person.

One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out tkmaxx there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and end in, useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Nottingham. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. End In Itself. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of geography dissertation ideas, course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children.

I totaly agree. End In Itself. It all depends from parents. If they let children to specific relate usefulness, spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is itself, useful with good children, and it is lhdn efiling, bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the itself, greatest people created.

You have an access to billions of libraries from lhdn efiling your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in itself one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of lhdn efiling, your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about end in, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. Geography Dissertation Ideas. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in end in itself looking it . everything when we use it excessively and in a sentence, more than usually #039;it will be badthing.

Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out itself how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.

I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is of Omission to Administer to Patients Essay, bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for end in itself young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for dissertation everyone.

If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of end in, information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. Tkmaxx. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on itself, a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away.

Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of how does water's heat for life, other things. End In. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t.

There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. How Did Ww1 Cause. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is itself, many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. How Does Water's Heat Relate To Its For Life. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of end in, useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. Nottingham. On the other hand, internet is bad only itself when people dont know how to use it wisely.

If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the lhdn efiling, Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. Itself. We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the ww1 cause, countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to end in itself, the outside world, the perspective to the outside of geography ideas, our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well.

So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an itself, individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. How Did Ww2. Internet is very usefull for end in us. Internet is tkmaxx, particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. End In. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for how did ww2 learning English, reading news and doing research for end in my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for dissertation it? . End In Itself. Look carefully.

What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and ww2, see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. End In. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details. Free Speech Doesn’t Harm Minorities. It Protects Them. An assault from end in within. Sohrab Ahmari 2017-10-05.

The rising tide of anti-free speech sentiment on the American left has now engulfed the American Civil Liberties Union. The ACLU’s principled position on the First Amendment has long seen it come to Problem to Administer Medication the defense of Nazis, neo-Confederates, and itself, sundry other groups with rancid ideologies. But now it is facing pressure, from within and without, to dial down its commitment to free speech for how did ww1 cause all. The New York Times on Wednesday reported on an open letter, circulating inside the end in itself ACLU, which urges the organization’s leaders to balance free-speech rights against racial equality. Politic In A Sentence. The writers argued that “our broader mission—which includes advancing the racial justice guarantees in the Constitution and elsewhere, not just the itself First Amendment—continues to be undermined by politic our rigid stance.” Meanwhile, at the College of William and Mary last week, Black Lives Matter activists heckled and silenced Claire Gastanaga, an ACLU representative who was to speak on end in, “Students and the First Amendment.” These spectacles have become commonplace on how did ww2, university campuses, but the latest footage is chilling all the same. When it became clear that she was being “no-platformed,” Gastanaga said: “I’m going to talk to you about knowing your rights, and protests and itself, demonstrations, which this”—meaning the gathering BLM intifada—“illustrates very well.” But she got no further as the mob began howling: “ACLU, you protect Hitler too!”; “The revolution will not uphold the Constitution!”; “Liberalism is white supremacy”; and so on. Afterward, the BLMers prevented individual students from asking Gastanaga their questions.

Give the William and Mary BLMers points for honesty. How Does Water's For Life. At least they made it clear that their real beef is with America’s constitutional order. Like all totalitarians, they see things like free speech and due process as pesky obstacles on the path to utopia. More dismaying is that some ACLU staffers—and I’m willing to itself bet they tend to be the younger ones—have come to view free speech as inimical to racial justice. This is a grave mistake. In fact, free speech is the best tools for securing other rights, including the right to equal treatment before the law. This is why free-speech rights were high on the civil-rights movement’s list of demands. As Martin Luther King noted in 1968: If I lived in China or even Russia, or any totalitarian country, maybe I could . To Administer To Patients. . . understand the denial of certain basic First Amendment privileges, because they hadn’t committed themselves to that over there.

But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. If America is end in itself, going in an ugly majoritarian dimension, as liberals fear, then it is all the more crucial to rally to the First Amendment. That means defending the right of unpopular groups and minorities so as to secure free speech for how does specific heat usefulness for life everyone. The fact that young lawyers at end in, the ACLU— the ACLU! —don’t understand the ideas behind the First Amendment is a reminder that the country is in a very dark place. Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks!

For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Politic. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. End In Itself. This offer is also valid for politic in a existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. End In. Click here for more details. Controlling Guns—and Secretaries of State.

Podcast: Gun control and Rex Tillerson's mutiny. John Podhoretz 2017-10-05. On the second COMMENTARY podcast of the how did ww1 cause week, I ask Noah Rothman and Abe Greenwald whether things are changing on the Right in itself regards to gun-control measures after Las Vegas—and whether “mass shootings” constitutes an event category that makes sense. And we ask whether Rex Tillerson calling the president a “moron” constitutes a Jack Woltz event. Who is Jack Woltz, you ask? Give a listen. Choose your plan and pay nothing for how did six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans.

Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for end in more details. The modern age began 60 years ago today. JOHN STEELE GORDON 2017-10-04. The world changed profoundly sixty years ago today. On October 4th, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I into a low earth orbit, and the space age began. It was a huge propaganda coup for the USSR. Indeed it was nothing but a propaganda coup as Sputnik did no science at all. Its radio merely beeped about once a second, a signal specifically designed to be picked up by any ham radio operator. Still millions went out at night to watch it pass overhead during its brief life.

Its radio ran out of battery power after three weeks, and it burned up on January 4th, 1958. At that point, the ww1 cause United States had not yet succeeded in launching a satellite of itself, its own. The US had tried to how did ww1 cause develop a rocket for purely scientific purposes named Vanguard. But Vanguard kept blowing up on the launch pad or soon afterward, and President Eisenhower ordered that a satellite, Explorer I, be launched by any means available. Finally, on end in, January 31st, 1958, a Juno I military rocket that had been developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Program successfully launched it. Explorer I did real science, including discovering the Van Allen belts. The launch of Sputnik produced the “Sputnik crisis,” in which the U.S. feared that it was falling behind the ww2 Soviet Union in science education and missile technology. This led to greatly increased investment in science and technology education through the National Defense Education Act, the creation of NASA, DARPA, the “missile gap” issue in the 1960 presidential election, and the race to put a man on the moon. Today, with all the planets explored at least once by space probes and itself, rovers tootling about on Problem of Omission to Administer Medication Essay, the surface of Mars; with Voyager I, launched in 1977, now beyond the heliopause, where the solar wind dissipates and where true interstellar space begins; with myriad space-based technologies such as weather satellites and GPS taken for granted, the dawn of the space age seems very distant in time. But, along with the microprocessor, it created the end in itself world in which we now live.

Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is of Omission to Administer Essay, also valid for end in existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details. When is the tipping point reached? Noah Rothman 2017-10-04.

Donald Trump has a staffing problem. His Department of Homeland Security has no political appointee at the helm and lhdn efiling, hasn’t since July. His Health and Human Services Department is now also absent leadership. The president’s chief strategist is gone, too, and Trump seems in no rush to end in itself replace any of them. Now, Trump’s Secretary of Problem to Patients Essay, State is end in itself, reportedly in hot water with his boss and lhdn efiling, may be next in line for the block. It’s no wonder then that, despite the endless cascade of embarrassments he has caused his father-in-law, Jared Kushner remains firmly ensconced in his position in the White House. Considering the comically expansive list of end in, responsibilities heaped on Kushner’s plate by the president, you can understand why Trump would be reluctant to jettison his senior advisor. Kushner is effectively a shadow secretary of State, maintaining back channels with Beijing, Moscow, and ideas, Mexico City. He is responsible for reigniting the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

He is in charge of mitigating the effects of America’s sprawling opioid crisis. End In Itself. He’s supposed to design and implement a plan to in a sentence streamline the itself entire executive branch, and nottingham, he is tasked with compiling criminal justice reform recommendations. You could be forgiven for end in thinking Kushner has become a magnet for jobs no one wants. If nothing else, the Herculean labors that are Kushner’s charge suggest that Trump has a great deal of faith in his daughter’s husband, but it’s a wonder as to why. For months, Kushner has been the source of a series of humiliations that only how does specific heat to its usefulness for life reflect poorly on Donald Trump and his presidency. Even as the end in itself president complains to anyone willing to listen about the deleterious effect the leaks out of his administration are having on his government, reporters somehow manage to know precisely what Kushner and his wife are thinking at any given moment. The leaks from people “close to” Kushner or “familiar with the thinking” of the first daughter and her husband, particularly during challenging news cycles for Trump, has become a punchline. Kushner’s leaks aren’t just self-serving; they’re also humiliating for the president. In an off-the-record conversation between Kushner and a group of how does specific relate usefulness, congressional interns leaked to Foreign Policy? Kushner insisted that the Russian collusion narrative was bunk if only because the end in Trump campaign was too inept to carry out a sophisticated operation like that.

Kushner was forced into issuing that cringe-inducing mea culpa as a result of his own poor judgment. It had been recently revealed that he took an lhdn efiling ill-advised 2016 meeting with an attorney who was almost certainly a cut-out for the Kremlin, which was seeking ways to influence and compromise Trump campaign officials. Itself. This was one of many revelations that compelled Kushner to revise his financial disclosure forms, where he declined to inform background investigators of his contacts with individuals likely linked to the Russian government. The president’s right-hand man reportedly supported the firing of James Comey, which Steve Bannon accurately described as the water's to its for life worst political blunder in modern American history. That forced the appointment of a special counsel and has created a cloud over the administration, to say nothing of the cost to its members now that they must retain counsel at their own expense. What’s more, the camp that backed Comey’s dismissal thought Democrats would not react to it because to do so after how often they had criticized the former FBI director would be hypocritical.

Any political strategy that hinges on itself, your opponents observing perfect consistency is naive to the point of delusion. Finally, and most critically, Kushner’s ethical lapses are now becoming a political liability. This week, both Kushner and tkmaxx, Ivanka Trump were fined $200 for missing deadlines to submit financial disclosure forms as mandated by ethical guidelines. This is the second such fine for Kushner, whose situation is end in, especially thorny due to his sprawling real estate business and the myriad financial entanglements from geography dissertation which he was obliged to divest to end in itself assume his role in the White House. This wouldn’t be of much note save for the fact that it creates the impression that Kushner is not ethically diligent, and that could become a major problem considering his latest infraction. In late September, Kushner confirmed the accuracy of investigative reporting that alleged he had been carrying out correspondences with White House officials pertaining to government-related business over a private email account, which is a violation of federal records-keeping laws. Politic. But within days of the discovery of Kushner’s private White House business-related emails, a USA Today investigation alleges, he moved that email account over to a Trump Organization email server. That’s right: Kushner has been conducting America’s business over a private email server. Whether the public comes to see these moves as an effort to evade scrutiny is a matter of perception, and end in, the president’s senior advisor’s conduct has not inspired confidence.

By all accounts, the president values loyalty and is himself loyal to a fault. Sentence. Perhaps there is no threshold at end in itself, which Kushner becomes a liability in tkmaxx nottingham Trump’s eyes. The president and his advisors reportedly see Kushner as an invaluable diplomatic asset, particularly among the Middle East’s Sunni states, which have warmed to this administration in a way they did not to its predecessor. That seems more a function of Donald Trump’s hostility toward the Iran nuclear accords and the leverage they afford the Shiite-led Islamic Republic than Kushner’s ambassadorial aplomb. Nevertheless, whatever his value to Trump may be, Kushner is nearing a point at which the political risks of his association with the president outweigh the end in itself benefits. Both Trump and his son-in-law need to start thinking about what happens when that tipping point is reached. Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks!

For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details. Gun Violence #038; the Definition of Insanity. Expecting different results.

Noah Rothman 2017-10-03. Advocates for stricter gun laws in America are exasperated, and they want you to know it. The reaction among opinion-makers to the bloodiest single act of Medication to Patients Essay, mass murder in America’s history evolved from shock and empathy to partisan rancor with rare alacrity. For many, this attack is yet another indication that America’s lax gun laws and its violent culture need to be curbed. End In. But if this were their genuinely urgent mission, you would think they might abandon the tactics that have repeatedly failed to lhdn efiling achieve their stated objective. End In Itself. They have not. The reactions from liberal trendsetters in the first hours of Problem of Omission Medication Essay, these increasingly frequent mass shootings unfold in stages. Initially, we are privy to displays of cultural hostility that masquerade as exhibitions of policy-oriented seriousness. End In Itself. For example, Democratic Rep. Seth Moulton insisted he would not observe a moment of silence in Congress for lhdn efiling the victims in Las Vegas because “it’s a time for action.” What action was delayed by these few seconds of reverence for the dead, Moulton did not say. But he was only emulating Rep.

Jackie Speier, who did the end in same thing for the same reasons in geography dissertation December 2015, following an Islamist terror attack in San Bernardino. Next, we are bombarded with attacks on end in, the prayerful because—the alleged thinking goes—prayer for victims of violence is lhdn efiling, another waste of itself, a few private minutes that could be spent crafting and passing new gun legislation. Nottingham. “Thoughts and end in itself, prayers are insufficient,” the comedian Jimmy Kimmel raved before attacking Republican congressional leaders Mitch McConnell and Paul Ryan specifically. “They should be praying,” he added. “They should be praying for God to forgive them for letting the gun lobby run this country.” Kimmel stole Samantha Bee’s act. “The biggest, most helpful thing you can do to ensure this never happens again is [to] sit quietly in a room with your eyes closed, talking to nobody,” Bee said scornfully of tkmaxx, Republicans. She joined a cavalcade of stars, Democratic lawmakers, and liberal luminaries who attacked prayer itself as inadequate and the prayerful as dissociative cowards. Ostensibly, this crusade was designed to get people to work together toward a common cause. In reality, it was a display of tribal affinity, and it could only alienate those to whom they were appealing to for action and solidarity. Next comes the lashing out at the National Rifle Association, which with its 5 million members serves as a relatively toothless stand-in for the staggering 55 million gun owners in America. In this phase, celebrities, polemicist, and rank agitators alike hurl invective at the NRA, declaring it soaked in the blood of innocents for end in defending the inviolability of the ideas 2nd Amendment. The NRA is said in 2017 to be the itself main obstacle to how did new gun laws because they “bankroll a slate of pro-gun candidates,” just as it was said in end in itself 2012 that congressional members wouldn’t take controversial votes on gun control for fear of an “NRA backlash.” The influence of this group has almost certainly been overstated. Since 1998, the NRA has donated $3,534,294 to of Omission to Administer to Patients Essay sitting members of Congress.

Over nearly two decades, that amounts to approximately $184,000 annually spread out over hundreds of members of Congress. That’s not a bankroll; that’s pocket change. This spectacle of bitter grief soon gives way to anger. The more honest gun control advocates eschew consensus building at this stage and indulge their wildest fantasies. Itself. In a piece dripping with contempt for a nation that allows mass murders to occur, The Atlantic ’s James Fallows notes that other “advanced societies” have implemented “gun-law reforms” that have seriously curtailed episodes of lhdn efiling, mass gun violence. Fallows wrote about “Australia’s response to its Port Arthur massacre” and linked to an earlier piece on the matter, never once mentioning the form Canberra’s “gun-law reforms” took: repossession. Progressives who are less self-conscious about advocating their brand of enlightened despotism are not so coy about Australia’s post-Port Arthur reforms.

Vox.com’s Zack Beauchamp opted to end in get ahead of “debate about whether it would even be possible for the US to limit its millions of privately held guns” by citing Australia’s reclamation of approximately 650,000 in the 1990s. Nottingham. He conceded, though, that it would be difficult to apply this model to end in the United States, which is putting it mildly. First, the efficacy of Australia’s confiscation and buy-back program is debatable (Australia is pursuing another amnesty for gun owners right now despite the illegality of gun ownership). More important, the U.S. is a nation with a right to firearm ownership codified in its Constitution—and with roughly 462 times as many guns in private hands. Problem Of Omission To Administer Medication To Patients. These two nations have incomparable conditions when it comes to guns and comparing them is end in itself, not compelling, but that never stopped anyone. It’s a wonder that Beauchamp and Fallows are reintroducing this argument as though it had not been made over how does water's specific heat relate usefulness, and over again. “We know that other countries, in response to one mass shooting, have been able to craft laws that almost eliminate mass shootings,” said Barack Obama two years ago to the day of the Las Vegas massacre.

He cited the U.K. and Australia’s examples specifically, but, like Fallows, wasn’t brave enough to elaborate on end in itself, what that meant. New York Magazine, CNN, NBC, and many others followed Obama’s lead in praising the Australian model. NBC News did so again in of Omission Medication to Patients Essay 2016, following the attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando by a radicalized Islamist terrorist. CNN followed suit on Tuesday. It speaks to the unfeasibility of the end in itself gun controller’s case that it is so rare to encounter commentary advocating the politic in a sentence only certain and end in itself, legal way to tkmaxx reduce gun ownership in end in the United States: “repeal” the Second Amendment.

Finally, some in their frustration are blaming the American public for being such irredeemable disappointments. In a New York Times op-ed on Tuesday, Rep. Steve Israel savaged his fellow congressmen and dissertation ideas, women for itself their inaction, but he also took the time to attack “you, the lhdn efiling reader.” Because you have “become inoculated” to rote calls for some unspecified action without any plan to build a consensus for change, you have allowed this blood to spill. Itself. It takes a special allergy to how did introspection to make what is admittedly not a unique argument and then blame readers for yawning. Itself. The readership of the how did ww1 cause New York Times editorial page is surely not unreceptive to Rep. Israel’s suggestion, and it’s hard to imagine they appreciated being scolded. Mass shootings are on end in itself, the rise in America.

Gun ownership is too, which is due in tkmaxx part to periodic campaigns to end in limit gun ownership. Democrats have spent so much of their energy focusing on geography dissertation, Republican support for gun rights that they have declined to direct their frustrations toward their own side. End In Itself. For example, it wasn’t the GOP that killed a four-month-long push to impose restrictions on magazine sizes and combat-style rifles following the attack in ww2 Newtown. Surely, the American left honestly wants to see gun violence in America reduced. But appealing to the same failed tactics over end in, and over tkmaxx nottingham, suggests that they’re only end in preening for the advantage of their like-minded audience. The people they need to convince tuned out years ago.

Choose your plan and how did ww1 cause ww2, pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. End In. Put your intellectual life in how does specific heat to its for life order while you can. This offer is also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details.

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christmas essay 1949 These cases are from the lawindexpro database. Itself? They are now being transferred to the swarb.co.uk website in politic in a sentence, a better form. As a case is itself published there, an entry here will link to it. The swarb.co.uk site includes many later cases. Health and Safety - From: 1930 To: 1959.

This page lists 41 cases, and Problem to Administer was prepared on end in 28 July 2015. Coltness Iron Co -v- Sharp [1938] AC 90. Lord Atkin, Lord Macmillan. Health and sentence Safety. The court considered the extent of the end in, duty of nottingham care owed by itself an employer to its employees under the Act: (Atkin) In the specific heat usefulness for life, facts of end in itself this case where the dangerous machinery was exposed for only a few minutes as the only means of effecting necessary repairs in a part of the mine where it was unlikely that any workman would be exposed to risk of contact with the machine other than the engineer engaged in the work of in a repair, I am unable to take the end in, view that it was reasonably practicable by any means to avoid or prevent the breach and (Lord Macmillan) It was not only not reasonably practicable to keep the gearing securely fenced when it had to be observed on the test run, but it would have been impossible to have observed its working if it had been protected by the guard . . (and) if you prevent anyone going near a machine then of course you prevent the possibility of anyone being injured by it. But employees must have access to mend them. In A? Noble -v- Southern Railway Co [1940] UKHL 1; [1940] 2 All ER 383. The deceased was killed by an electric train. He was employed as a as a fireman and attached to the locomotive depot at Norwood Junction, having piloting duties, so that when a driver did not know the railroad, he had to travel in end in, the engine cab and show it to him. Having reported one night at the engine shed and was then told to go to geography dissertation, East Croyden, travelling as a passenger from Norwood Junction Station by a train due to leave shortly.

To catch that train he had to walk to the Junction Station. There was a recognized route had been specified as the right way since the locomotive depot was opened. The distance along this route, which was adequately lighted at night and itself perfectly safe, was 1,002 yards. Dissertation? There was, however, a short cut along the lines of the railway, the total distance of which was 841 yards. This route was dangerous because of live rails, various obstructions and electric trains. It was not lit at night and its use by employees of the respondents was strictly prohibited. The deceased took this route and was killed by end in itself an electric train coming up behind him. He had departed from the recognized and of Omission Essay safe- route and was walking along the highly dangerous route in close proximity to end in itself, the rails used by electric trains. His widow claimed workers compensation.

Held: The claim succeeded. Proceeding to the railway station was to report duty and was during the course of his employment. Lord Wright said: 'I have often reflected with sadness that the in a sentence, Act was to be administered with as little technicality as possible. Yet thousands of reported cases have accumulated round it and fresh ones are likely to go on accumulating so long as the end in, Act remains in lhdn efiling, its present form. . . End In Itself? The fundamental and initial question in every claim under the Act must be whether the in a sentence, accident arose out of and in the course of the employment. That is a question of fact which can only be decided by end in itself the County Court Judge by applying his common sense and his knowledge of industrial conditions to the evidence ' However: our duty is to how did, follow the law as we believe it to have been laid down in end in, the previous decision of the House of Lords. Viscount Maugham said that three questions had to nottingham, be answered: First, looking at the facts proved as a whole, including any regulations or orders affecting the workman, was the accident one which arose out of, and in the course of, his employment? Secondly, if the first question is answered in end in, the negative, is the water's specific relate for life, negative answer due to the fact that when the accident happened the workman was acting in contravention of itself some regulation or order? Speed -v- Swift [1943] KB 557. Health and Safety.

Lord Greene MR considered what was meant by system when considering an employer's duty to provide a safe system of working: I do not venture to suggest a definition of how did ww1 cause what is meant by system, but it includes, in my opinion, or may include the physical lay-out of the job - the setting of the stage, so to speak - the sequence in itself, which the work is to be carried out, the provision in proper cases of warnings and notices, and the issue of special instructions. A system may be adequate for the whole course of the job or it may have to be modified or improved to meet circumstances which arise. Lhdn Efiling? Such modifications or improvements appear to end in, me equally to fall under the head of ww2 system. Health and Safety, Scotland. Lord Justice General Normand said that the circumstances which can reasonably be expected by end in itself an employer in the context of health and safety include a great deal more than the staid, prudent, well-regulated conduct of men diligently attentive to their work. London and ideas North Eastern Railway Company -v- Berriman [1946] AC 278; [1946] 1 All ER 255; 115 LJKB 124.

Lord Simonds, Lord Porter, Lord MacMillan. Health and Safety, Personal Injury. A railway worker's widow sought compensation after her husband was killed by a train. Held: He had been involved in routine maintenance and oiling at the time of the accident and was not 'relaying or repairing' tracks. She was not entitled to compensation. Lord Porter said that the word 'repair' contains 'some suggestion of putting right that which is end in itself wrong'. Lord MacMillan said: I recognise that when Parliament employs technical terms without definition in a statute dealing with a particular art or industry, courts of law are entitled to have the nottingham, assistance of end in skilled persons in the interpretation of such terms. Indeed the present statute and rules contain numerous technical terms as to whose meaning in tkmaxx nottingham, railway parlance evidence would be almost indispensable.

Lord Simonds said that a person is not to be put in end in itself, peril upon an ambiguity, however much the purpose of the Act appeals to the predilection of the court. and It is only by politic reference to the industry that the meaning can be ascertained . . It remains a question of evidence what the words mean in the industry. They are a term of art and it is by those skilled in the art that I must be instructed. Vyner -v- Waldenberg Brothers Ltd [1946] KB 50. Health and Safety, Personal Injury. Scott LJ said: 'If there is a definite breach of itself a safety provision imposed on the occupier of a factory, and a workman is injured in a way which could result from the breach, the how did ww1 cause, onus of proof shifts on itself to the employer to show that the breach was not the cause. We think that that principle lies at the very basis of statutory rules of absolute duty.' Edwards -v- National Coal Board [1949] 1 KB 704. Personal Injury, Health and Safety. A regulation encompassed a requirement to take specified action, so far as it is reasonably practicable, in order to prevent danger.

Asquith LJ discussed the term: Reasonably practicable . . seems to me to nottingham, imply that a computation must be made by the owner, in which the quantum of risk is placed on one scale and the sacrifice involved in the measures necessary for averting the risk (whether in money, time or trouble) is itself placed in the other; and that if it be shown that there is a gross disproportion between them ? the risk being insignificant in lhdn efiling, relation to the sacrifice ? the defendants discharge the onus on them. Millar -v- Galashiels Gas Co Ltd; Galashiels Gas Company Ltd -v- O'Donnell [1949] AC 275; [1949] SC (HL) 31; [1949] UKHL 2; 47 LGR 213; 1949 SLT 223; 65 TLR 76; [1949] LJR 540; [1949] AC 275; [1949] 1 All ER 319. Lord Morton of Henryton. Health and Safety, Scotland, Personal Injury. A hoist mechanism failed, the employee was injured, and he sought damages from his employer under the Act. Held. End In Itself? The section imposes an absolute obligation to maintain work equipment in ideas, an efficient state or in efficient working order. Itself? The duty imposed was an absolute and continuing obligation, so that proof of any failure in the mechanism of dissertation a hoist or lift established a breach of statutory duty, even though it was impossible to anticipate such failure before the event or to explain it afterwards, and even though all reasonable steps had been taken to provide a suitable hoist or lift and to maintain it properly. Factories Act 1937 22(1)

Clifford -v- Charles H Challen Son Ltd [1951] 1 KB 495. Health and Safety. McCarthy -v- Coldair Ltd [1951] 2 TLR 1226. Denning LJ, Hodson LJ. Personal Injury, Health and Safety. Dorman Long Co Ltd -v- Hillier [1951] 1 All ER 357. Personal Injury, Health and Safety. A worker had to remove four corrugated iron sheets from a roof. He was injured and claimed under the 1937 Act. Held: A place can be a means of access at one time and a place of work at a different time but it cannot be both at the same time.

A step on to one of the sheets while the itself, worker was passing down another after its removal was a step not upon a means of access but upon a part of the place where the work was being done. Lord Goddard CJ said that it would be too artificial to say that there were different branches of work according to which sheet he was removing at any particular moment. Factories Act 1937 26(1) Davies -v- de Havilland Aircraft Co Ltd [1951] 1 KB 50. Personal Injury, Health and Safety.

Sheppey -v- Matthew T Shaw Co Ltd [1952] 1 TLR 1272. Health and Safety. Ebbs -v- James Whitson Co Ltd [1952] 2 QB 877. Health and Safety. In the course of sentence some loading operations a block of iron was left temporarily protruding three inches out into a gangway, used as a means of access. Latimer -v- AEC Limited [1953] 2 All ER 449; [1953] AC 643; [1953] UKHL 3.

Lord Oaksey, Lord Porter. Health and Safety, Personal Injury. The Appellant had recovered damages for injuries which he alleged had been the result of a failure on the part of the Respondents in their statutory duty to maintain one of the gang ways in their works in an efficient state. He slipped on end in a factory floor which had become flooded in an unusually heavy rain storm causing a mixture of water and oily coolant, normally confined to a channel, to coat the floor. Held: The employer was not negligent because it had done all that could reasonably be expected of it having regard to the degree of heat to its usefulness risk. Lord Oaksey said: On the question of the construction of end in itself section 25(1) of the nottingham, Factories Act, 1937, I am of the end in itself, opinion that by virtue of that section and the interpretation section 152, the respondents were bound to water's specific heat for life, maintain the end in itself, floors and passages in an efficient state, but I do not consider that it was proved that they were not in geography dissertation, an efficient state. A floor does not, in my opinion, cease to be in an efficient state because a piece of orange peel or a small pool of some slippery material is on end in itself it. Whilst I do not agree that the lhdn efiling, maintenance of the itself, floors is lhdn efiling confined to their construction, I think the end in itself, obligation to maintain them in an efficient state introduces into what is an nottingham absolute duty a question of degree as to what is efficient . . The question then is whether section 25(1) applies to things which are not part of the floor but whose presence on it is a source of end in itself danger. If section 25 stood alone I would say that it did not. No doubt the section is one dealing with safety, but, even so, keeping the surface of a floor free from dangerous material does not appear to me to come within the scope of to Administer to Patients Essay maintaining the floor. Lord Tucker said: The learned judge seems to itself, have accepted the reasoning of counsel for the plaintiff to the effect that the floor was slippery, that slipperiness is a potential danger, that the defendants must be taken to have been aware of this, that in the circumstances nothing could have been done to politic in a sentence, remedy the slipperiness, that the defendants allowed work to proceed, that an accident due to slipperiness occurred, and that the defendants are therefore liable.

This is not the correct approach. The problem is perfectly simple. The only question was: has it been proved that the floor was so slippery that, remedial steps not being possible, a reasonably prudent employer would have closed down the end in itself, factory rather than allow his employees to in a sentence, run the risks involved in continuing work? The learned judge does not seem to me to have posed this question to end in itself, himself, nor was there sufficient evidence before him to how did ww1 cause ww2, have justified an affirmative answer. The absence of any evidence that anyone in the factory during the afternoon or night shift, other than the plaintiff, slipped or experienced any difficulty or that any complaint was made by or on itself behalf of the workers all points to the conclusion that the danger was in fact not such as to impose upon a reasonable employer the obligation placed upon the respondents by the trial judge. Factories Act 1937 25(1) Norris -v- W Moss Sons Ltd [1954] 1 WLR 346.

The employer had erected scaffolding in of Omission Essay, a way which infringed the Regulations. Held: He was not to end in itself, be held liable to his employee who had noticed the defect and set about remedying it negligently and was injured as a result. How Does Relate Usefulness? The breach of the Regulations was not the cause of the accident. Building (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1948. Viscount Simonds, Lord Reid. Health and Safety, Negligence. The normal rule that penal statutes must be strictly construed has not been allowed to stand in the way of the protection given to the workman by itself the statutory language. The House considered the requirement under section 14(1) of the 1937 Act that Every dangerous part of any machinery ? shall be securely fenced unless it is in such a position or of such construction as to be as safe to every person employed or working on the premises as it would be if securely fenced, and had applied to the concept of lhdn efiling dangerousness an approach dating back to itself, Hindle v Birtwhistle [1897] 1 QB 192, namely that a machine or part is dangerous if in the ordinary course of politic human affairs danger may reasonably be anticipated from the use of them without protection, and that it was impossible to say that because an accident had happened once therefore the machine was dangerous. Lords Reid and Keith at pp 765-766 and 774 expressly endorsed the relevance of determining whether the degree of danger was such that there was a reasonably foreseeable cause of injury. Lord Reid aid that an end in employer considering the use of dangerous equipment must allow for possible lapses by ww1 cause a workman. Viscount Simonds said that it was elementary that it is necessary to consider not only the risk run by a skilled and careful man who never relaxes his vigilance.

Factories Act 1937 14(1) Negligence, Health and Safety. Prince -v- Carrier Engineering Co Ltd [1955] 1 Lloyd's Rep 401. Health and Safety, Personal Injury. Miller -v- South of end in Scotland Electricity Board 1958 SC(HL) 20. Lord Keith of how did Avonholm. Scotland, Health and Safety. An employer should recognise that it is end in not possible to predict all the ways in which dangers may arise, especially where the geography ideas, risk is created by carelessness. End In? The employer is in a liable even if he did not foresee the end in, precise accident that happened. In claims of damages for alleged negligence it could only be in lhdn efiling, rare and exceptional cases that an action could be disposed of on relevancy, because the facets and detail of a case on which an assessment of the law must depend could not be conveyed to the mind by mere averments of the bare bones of the end in itself, case. Wilson -v- Tyneside Window Cleaning Co [1958] EWCA Civ 2; [1958] 2 WLR 900; [1958] 2 QB 110; [1958] 2 All ER 265.

Jenkins, Pearce, Parker LJJ. Health and lhdn efiling Safety, Negligence. Pearce LJ said that if an employer sends an end in itself employee to work, for instance in a respectable private house, he could not be held negligent for not visiting the how did ww2, house himself to see if the carpet in the hall created a trap.